The nucleus has two major functions:

  1. to replicate genetic material (DNA) during cell division.
  2. to synthesize mRNA by transcription from DNA.

Photo of various cell types from a section of plant stem.

The arrows show nuclei with a prominent nucleus in various cell types from a section of stem.

Photo of various cell types from a section of plant stem, with nuclei identified.

Most plant cells contain only a single nucleus with one or more nucleoli.

There is a double membrane surrounding the nucleus.

Electron micrograph of a plant cell with the nucleus, vacuole, and chloroplasts identified.

This is a single cell enlarged many times by electron microscopy.

The nucleolus is involved in the synthesis of Ribosomal RNA.

The nucleolus becomes larger and very active prior to cell division in meristematic cells.

Electronic micrograph showing a closeup view of a nucleolus.

The nuclear matrix (also known as the nucleoplasm) contains many ribosomes and chromatin (chromosomes).

The outer membrane of the nucleus contains many pores that allow molecules to move in and out of the nucleus.

Electronic micrograph of a nuclear matrix with the nucleolus and chromatin identified.