Mound layering (also called stooling) is the most important commercial form of layering.

Numerous fruit tree rootstocks, especially apple, are propagated by mound layering.

Illustration showing cross section image of mound layered plants with shoots above a mound branching from a base stem and roots below.

Plants that branch from the base easily are established in rows. These are cut back while dormant.

Illustration showing three steps of a plant stem growing, branching, then being cut back at ground level.

Photo of first year cherry plants growing in a stooling bed.

First year cherry plants in a stooling bed.

New shoots that arise the following season are mounded with sawdust at their bases as they grow.

Illustration showing multiple new shoots growing from a single stem that was cut back the previous season, with mounded sawdust added.

Photo of cherry stems with their bases covered with sawdust.

Cherry stems with the base of the stems covered with sawdust.

Layering in hazel (Corylus) requires girdling to be successful.

Photo showing mount layers of hazel with drip irrigation.

Mound layers of hazel with drip irrigation.

Close up photo of hazel (Corylus) stems that have been girdled pointed out.

Twist ties were used to girdle these stems prior to harvest.

Sawdust is brushed on the top of the plants as the stems emerge. Additional sawdust will be added as the stems get taller.

Photo showing machinery used to brush sawdust on top of stems.

Photo of tractor brushing sawdust atop rows of stems in a field.

Rows of apple layers before and after brushing sawdust over the row.

Photo showing rows of apple layers before and after brushing sawdust over the row, with a closeup photo of a mature mound showing dormant buds.

A mature mound layer showing dormant buds.

Commercially, apple rootstocks are the most common plants propagated by mound layering.

These rootstocks will later be budded to provide grafted cultivars for commercial orchards.

Photo of apple rootstocks being propagated by mound layering.

Photo of a plant being propagated by mound layering, with part of the mound removed to show the rooted layer inside it.

Cherry rootstocks are also mound layered.

Photo of cherry rootstocks being propagated by mound layering.

Close up photo of rootstock with roots partially exposed in the mound.

Rooted stems are cut by a blade and placed into cold storage to be used for grafting or budding the following spring.

Photo of machinery used to cut and collect rooted stems.

Close up photo of the cutting and collection mechanism.

After being cut, apple rootstocks bundled and stored under refrigeration.

Photo of bundled apple rootstocks.

Photo of containers of bundled rootstocks in refridgerated storage.