The term ex vitro refers to stages in micropropagation that do not take place in vitro.

In vitro means production in a test tube or other similar vessel where culture conditions and medium are controlled for optimum growth during tissue culture.

Ex vitro rooting of microcuttings occurs using greenhouse growing medium rather than rooting in vitro where cuttings are rooted on agar in a test tube.

photo showing examples of in vitro and ex vitro micropropagation.